|First, a couple of things you may have missed this past week.|
|The Thursday edition of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution had an interesting article on Georgia’s Libertarian candidates on the front page. I was mentioned near the end, but it has some good coverage of some other candidates, particularly Jay Strickland and J. Smythe Duval. I’d encourage you to check them out if you haven’t already. The electronic version of the AJC article can be found here.|
|I joined the other Libertarian candidate for Georgia’s Public Service Commission, Ryan Graham, on Georgia Libertycast. If you prefer video that’s available, too. Remember you can vote for both Ryan and myself. The seats (3 & 5) are separate statewide elections.|
There was also an article that came out this past week that had a little fun with numbers. The main point I want to point out here is this: when people hear about the Commission it’s usually because Commissioners are bragging about something. So we should have a very rose-colored picture of the PSC. If the things they go out of their way to brag about are disappointing, and may even require redefining terms, that should tell you just how bad the things they’re not talking about are. So let’s take them on their own perceived strengths and see what we see.
It’s important not to compare ourselves to other states. Just because they also have burdensome, meddling central planners isn’t an excuse for us to do the same. The proper comparison is the counter factual – what would be the case if our regulators weren’t getting in the way.
So let’s do a little thought experiment. Imagine we had a free market for electricity. People get to choose whatever electricity they want – and they pay whatever someone is willing to sell it for. And it would all be on a level playing field – you wouldn’t necessarily have to enter into bizarre agreements (more on this later) to make a particular choice.
How much of our electricity would come from solar power?
Surely, a lot of people would choose whatever energy source is the cheapest, and in the United States right now that likely wouldn’t be solar (not yet). It’s probably a fair guess that less than half of our electricity would come from solar while the R&D continues.
But it is becoming increasingly competitive, especially large-scale installations. So we would only have to pay slightly more for it. How many people would take that deal and want all their power coming from solar panels? I’d guess at least 2%.
How many would take some combination of wind and solar? 2%? Let’s say that mix is something like 50/50, so there’s another 1% of our electricity that would have to come from solar (and 1% from wind).
How many would insist on “renewable”, but not specify or particularly care what that really means? Maybe 5% ? That would mostly be biofuels, because entrenched interests seem to have an affinity there, so let’s say that’s another 1% of our power that would have to come from solar.
How many would want their power to come from some mixture of environmentally friendly sources? 24% of Georgians, maybe? Presumably that would be at least half nuclear, but let’s say the remaining half would be an even mix of hydro, wind, solar, and other. So there’s another 3% of electricity demanded of the photovoltaic cells.
So I’m estimating here, and I think this is pretty conservative, that at market equilibrium (at current technology – so ignoring the market incentives for innovation) … at least 7% of our electricity would be expected to come from solar currently, with the demand climbing with the cost effectiveness and social normalization.
And of course if that demand wasn’t being met all the incentives would align for a solid business model. If the established players didn’t respond someone else would. You know as well as I do some Georgian would love to invest in a solar farm and make their living that way.
OK, so 7%, just for argument’s sake. What do you think it is today? In this article the commissioners are so proud of how they pushed solar all the way to “less than 2 percent of the state’s electricity generation mix”. And by the way that’s measuring peak capacity – a theoretical number that has almost nothing to do with the question “where does my power come from”. In terms of actual generation it’s about 1%.
And in case you think you can simply vote for solar advocates and force the monopolies to do what you want through government, well that they thought you might do that, and with help from the PSC they’re ready! The friendly-named Community Solar program is how you theoretically could choose to buy solar today, but it’s a commitment – they designed the agreement so you take on the risk and cost and still buy whatever mix they feel like (at the going rate) when production is low in addition. You take all the downside. Georgia Power gets any the upside. But wait, it gets worse! If State or Federal laws are instituted requiring Georgia Power to provide renewable resources, the Company reserves the right to cancel all contracts and sales through this tariff without penalty.
That’s right, folks, this regulatory apparatus exists to excuse their monopoly power but if you actually try to use it, the people you hurt first are not the shareholders or investors but the most environmentally conscious members of your community.
But the article wants me to be happy about all this, because it was done without any official mandate. It was done in secret dealings behind closed doors. Now, to be clear, I have no problem with the Southern Company trying to do the right thing without being forced. But that’s not what’s happening.
What’s definitely not happening here is market forces. The article quotes Bubba saying: “It’s market driven.” Oh, really? Then you can’t take any credit. If it’s a market-driven solution then you had no role to play, because THAT’S WHAT MARKET-DRIVEN MEANS. And obviously it’s nonsense, because there’s no market for consumers to express their preferences in. “Market driven” actually has a meaning, it’s not just some stamp you throw onto anything you want to sound better.
And if you want to see just how ridiculous hubris can be, follow Commissioner Echols on Twitter. His feed is where up is down and down is up, and whenever he says things are going fine you better pay even closer attention.
Thanks to everyone who came to the campaign event this past weekend.
To those who did not attend, there’s new T-shirts! You missed out on your chance to be the first on your block to have one, and on a much more lovely Turpish, my wife Catherine, modelling one.
But you can still get one! I’m giving one to everyone who donates $50 or more (so make sure the address you enter on the form is one you can actually receive packages at).
There’s also stickers with a design very similar to the front of the T-shirt. If you’re not donating at T-shirt level, give $10 or more and you can decorate your laptop like mine.
Of course the best part of the event is spending time with people, mingling, and meeting new people. There’s a couple photos of that. But there were speakers, too, and for that part at least, you can reclaim much of the experience through the videos which have their own channel on PeerTube. If you really only want to hear what I had to say, I’ll embed that video below.
We’ll be looking to do another event along these lines later on in the year, but maybe it shouldn’t be in Atlanta. This is a state-wide election, afterall, and lots of people outside of the metro area deserve to participate. The planning on that hasn’t begun, so feel free to send me a note about why your neck of the woods is the most liberty-loving.
Voters go to the polls today. While it’s not a real election, it’s an internal matter of some private clubs, it brings to mind something that’s been sticking with me. As I go to various festivals and community events and meet a Georgians of all walks of life, one of the most common responses I get is: “I can’t vote.”
Now, if that’s you, please don’t let it hold you back. Your vote is not the only way you can participate, and if you do the math you can see that’s not what I’m really after when I go out to meet people face-to-face, anyhow.
But the fact that it’s so common has made me stop to think about this. Why can’t they vote? I generally won’t ask that, but most offer up elaboration. From most common to least:
- I have a felony record.
- I’m not a US Citizen.
- My official residence is in another state.
- I’m too young.
Now, these things are all connected in one way or another to voting restriction that makes sense.
If someone is convicted of stuffing ballot boxes by all means ban that person from polling stations for the rest of their life. And more generally if someone commited a real crime – victimizing someone and violating their rights – it’s reasonable for the punishment to include curtailing the perpetrator’s rights. But if they’ve finished paying their debt to society, how much longer before we can consider them full adults again? If someone was convicted of selling a substance to people who voluntarily bought it a decade ago, would letting that person vote mean we’d be overrun by tyrants?
No doubt, we certainly wouldn’t want to invite Kim Jong-un to vote in our elections. Those voting in American elections should have a vested interest in America flourishing, and be very concerned about the dangers that lie ahead for America. So perhaps it makes sense to restrict the vote to citizens. But if someone has chosen to be here for many years working, participating in the community, putting down roots, raising a family, and making America their home… why is it still so hard for that person to legally become American?
It certainly doesn’t seem reasonable for someone to have a full vote in more than one place, letting them count as two people. But think about how many people cross a political boundary as they travel from home to work. I cross a county line, for example, and the municipality I’m entering is governed quite differently. Do I have no interest at all in the political regime that I’m living under for most of my waking hours most days?
As a father, I understand why we’d be reluctant to hand the reigns of power over to a young child. But consider who is a mere 13 years old right now. They will not be allowed to vote for or against me this fall, and that seems like it makes sense. But whoever is elected commissioner this fall will still be in office and impacting the life of that young person when they’ve moved into a place of their own, paying their bills, and struggling to make ends meet. They must accept living under the “authority” of someone they never had any say in.
I’m not necessarily proposing a specific change in any of these things. But as the percentage of the population of our state who cannot vote keeps getting higher and higher, we need to recognize that at some point we will have to stop pretending it’s a democracy.
Even if we did do a better job of this, it will never be perfect. Laws are a blunt instrument. They will always get something wrong and unjustly disenfranchise someone. If you want to fully respect the preferences of each individual, nothing can approximate that better than a free market. Let’s put more of the choices in the hands of each of us rather than the all of us.
People on the right oppose Plant Vogtle.
People on the left oppose Plant Vogtle.
Religious people oppose Plant Vogtle.
Environmentalists oppose Plant Vogtle.
Other Libertarians oppose Plant Vogtle.
And yet construction continues. And you continue paying for it, without any say in the matter and without getting anything in return. Because those who profit from it, notably including Georgia Power, support it. And the Commissioners they donate to support it.
This sort of issue is nothing new. When one combines concentrated benefit and diffuse cost it’s not hard to predict which side the lobbying will come from and whose side it is in governing bodies’ self interest to choose.
What is remarkable, though, is the hubris involved. Last week the Public Service Commission held hearings to get a progress report from Georgia Power. And, surprising no one, apparently they think everything is moving along just swimmingly, despite being so far over budget and past deadline that it’s no longer economic to bother finishing.
To me the whole process was summarized when I watched the witness appear to chuckle as he pretended not to understand the word “cap”. As in a limit. As in a forseeable end to their abuse of Georgians. It was initially in response to a question that was intended to be friendly, which had come from Commissioner Bubba who had otherwise spent most of his energies preventing questions from others. He was merely prompting for an assuagement of fears about the final total cost and completion date. But the witness was unwilling to commit to any limitation, presumably since he knows additional extensions will be granted by friendly commissioners whenever requested. Another questioner got a similar response when asking about a “cap” to the amount of money that could be extracted from you.
The solution is obvious, and should apply not just to nuclear any kind of power plant. Force them to seek funding on the capital markets – from voluntary investors. Not only is that more just and proper, it comes with accountability. When the money is coming from the same people who are making the decision, you better believe they’re not going to just throw it down a hole of endless construction. The excuse we sometimes hear from commissioners – that it isn’t common practice in other states – is completely invalid. It’s like when TSA agents tell you what they’re doing is “standard procedure”: that you abuse everyone is supposed to make it better somehow?
We’re hosting a social event to look at the next phase of the campaign, and we hope to see you there! This event/party is for everybody who’s interested or who might just enjoy our company.
|When:||Sat, June 2, 2018 6:00PM|
2391 Peachtree Road
Atlanta, GA 30305
Right now if you look up your zip code on a site like powertochoose.org, chooseenergy.com, or electricchoice.com you’ll likely see something like this:
I’d like to change that.
What do the following states have in common: Connecticut; Delaware; Illinois; Maine; Maryland; Massachusetts; Michigan; New Hampshire; New Jersey; New York; Ohio; Oregon; Pennsylvania; Rhode Island; Texas; and Virginia?
In what way do all those states put Georgia to shame?
They all have some form of electric choice. The programs differ and none of them are 100%. But they’re all much closer to a free market and more accountable to consumers to that of Georgia.
All those states prove by their actions that something practical is very achievable.
In case you’re unfamiliar, electric choice is the general concept that consumers of electricity should have some choice in where their electricity comes from. Usually it means making a separation between utilities, who are in charge of the infrastructure and actually hook wires to your home, and providers who generate electricity (or obtain it from someone who does) and then sell it to you. The closest thing Georgia has is if you are a major industrial electric consumer (like a factory) you get one shot to pick your electric provider from a short list, up-front. And then if you ever want to change you need permission from the company you’re trying to drop! And if you’re a normal person? You get no choice whatsoever at any point.
In most of those other states I listed above it’s similar to the way we used to do long-distance telephone service before we were all talking on mobile phones. One company is in charge of servicing the basic hardware and getting your phone to work again after a storm, while another company provides another service connected to by that first company.
Why does this matter? There’s a few reasons.
Just as a matter of principle: it’s your money, you’re the one buying something, so whenever practical we should allow you to choose from whom you buy it.
It’s one fewer industry under state-granted monopoly. One fewer opportunity for the people of Georgia to be exploited.
It allows decisions to be spread out over 10 million people throughout, instead of 5 commissioners in Atlanta. It’s harder for that many people to make a stupid mistake. It’s much harder for that many people to be bribed (or whatever they want to call the legal version of bribery).
There’s a lot of complicated decisions involved in energy. Economics, both long- and short-term. The environment – wise use of our resources. Sustainability. Impact on employees in the industry. Relations with other states on the same grid. Some say this is cause for trusting experts, but the “experts” we’ve elected have proven themselves no better than anyone else. I say we put those with skin in the game in the drivers seat – you, the person paying the bill.
Transparency. Any such system will involve making lots of information available to the public that otherwise tends to get swept under the rug of small print.
With the added degree of freedom in the system, future improvements become more practical and achievable. In particular electric choice often lends itself to divestment along this natural boundary between utility and provider. This is an important step in the right direction.
So why wouldn’t we do it?
Those who want to protect the vested interests of the monopolists will try to claim there’s added efficiencies gained from vertical integration. In theory there may actually be a point there, but we can’t adequately assess that because we can’t trust any numbers generated internally by the likes of Georgia Power. And, of course, even if it were more efficient that doesn’t necessarily mean lower cost to customers. They could simply absorb those efficiencies through higher profits. Which do you think would happen?
If you believe in this vertical integration argument, I ask you why we have federal, state, local, and special-district governing bodies. Wouldn’t it be more efficient to abolish all that lower stuff and have those in Washington D.C. simply control everything? Maybe. But I know I wouldn’t trust them to do that, and I hope you’d eye such a suggestion with just as much suspicion. You get better stability, more choice in your community, and less disastrous effects from mistakes when you have checks on power and decentralization.
Now it’s true that one commissioner cannot force such a program to exist. This is normally done through the legislature. Or a power company could institute a program of some form of their own accord. I would actually prefer the latter, because voluntary action is preferable even at that level if we can make it work. My promise is not that you’ll certainly have this program in place if you elect me. My commitment is to work with the other commissioners, the power companies, and willing legislators to move in this direction.
The third of the principles I’m running is “Look before you leap.” Cautious, considered decisions. It’s on this point the Public Service Commission has once again failed us.
When it comes to decision making, it would seem the PSC is eager to do whatever utility companies would like, especially their largest donors. This is obviously not a sensible approach to coming to decisions that are favorable to Georgians. But it doesn’t necessarily mean they always make the wrong decisions. As the saying goes: even a stopped clock is right twice a day. Unless it’s the clock on my wall, which would only be right once a day were its battery to run out.
The event that inspired me to talk on this matter is a proposed merger of two energy companies, SCANA and Dominion. Georgia’s PSC was eager to be the first to approve the merger. While even a politician would dare to say something so bold as “I think it’s important that citizens understand, ratepayers understand, the deal,” our noble guardians of the public would rather simply approve and move on.
We would be right to be immediately suspicious of the PSC’s interaction with SCANA in particular. SCANA spends more on lobbying the PSC than anyone else. And it’s not just Georgia. And in turn SCANA is the only company who bothers to bid on the status of a “regulated provider” of natural gas that’s worth between $10,000,000 and $20,000,000 each year (at the PSC’s whim). Could it be that the other natural gas companies know they wouldn’t be approved anyhow? Well, don’t worry about that, because…
“I don't think there is a correlation at all,” between donations and the vote, said SCANA spokeswoman Simone McKinney.
Well there you go, then. We don’t have to worry about SCANA influencing the PSC, because their spokesperson said so. Re-tune your sarcasm detector if you missed it there.
This approach to decisions – just do whatever your patrons tell you – often leads to bad choices being made on behalf of all Georgians. But what about the decision itself? Should our commission have blocked the merger? Actually, no I don’t really think so. And that’s why I bring up the metaphor of the stopped clock.
This isn’t to say the merger is a good thing overall. If we are to ever have a real market in power, it would be preferable to have conditions for a healthy market. In particular it would be better to have more participants in the market. Instead, after this merger, the resulting company would have sole control over a large share of the market, by their own admission: 6.5 million people.
But as much as I’d rather the merger not happen, blocking it for the sake of blocking it is not an appropriate use of government. I’m not aware of anything criminal involving this deal. The deal does have some direct invovlement with South Carolinians, but they have their own commission so that doesn’t justify a heavy hand from Georgia. While both companies have used state power to turn the tables – turning customers they serve into ratepayers who serve them – there’s no reason to believe that would be any worse after the merger. Maybe SCANA wants to get away from fiscal trouble arising from a failed nuclear plant in South Carolina and their fresh, new junk credit rating. Maybe Dominion just sees a cheap way to buy access to more customers and markets. None of that really justifies a “No” vote.
My focus on choice may come as a surprise to some, especially when it comes to electricity. Some people think that a one-size-fits-all strategy makes sense when it comes to flipping the switch and seeing a light come on. So I thought it might be worthwhile to hint at some of the complexity in it – some of the things that your neighbors may, or may not, want to keep in mind when making these decisions based on their own values.
So naturally there’s monetary cost as it stands today in the marketplace. That should be pretty easy to determine – just look at what is being charged. But someone might want to look a little past that: what it really costs in total, including taxpayers picking up part of the bill for you in the form of subsidies.
There’s environmental factors. On some level we’re all “environmentalists” to one degree or another, because this is our home and we want our descendants to inherit it. For some people this consideration might be as simple as the carbon footprint of operation, or maybe the total carbon emissions including construction costs of replacement. Other people may want to take into account the disruption to ecosystems that otherwise ‘green’ sources like tidal energy may incur. There’s also “natural beauty” arguments against things that are seen as eyesores. For my part I actually kind of like the look of wind turbines and wouldn’t hold that against them. But that’s just my opinion. It shouldn’t really matter what I think about how your community looks.
It could be corporation-specific. You could want to boycott a particular energy producer for any number of reasons. Perhaps you don’t like the way they treat their employees, or some corporate policy rubs you the wrong way. Maybe you don’t like the way they spend their advertising dollars or you’re upset with them relocating jobs. Maybe you don’t like the CEO’s face, I don’t know. But whatever your exact concern is, that should be completely up to you. You shouldn’t have me deciding how reasonable it is.
There could be geopolitical factors for some. If equipment or fuel for a particular energy source is being imported in a way that enriches a government you distrust, it’s conceivable you may want to reduce your consumption of that energy. In our current situation that’s not usually about retail electric consumption, unless you have major issues with Canada, but as electric vehicles are becoming more common and more practical these issues become more interconnected.
One most people overlook, but would weigh heavily for me if I were able to make my own energy purchasing choices, can be summarized in a simple-sounding metric: human deaths per megawatt-hour. Human life is precious, and if there’s one cost outside of dollars and cents that I’d like to consider, it is the cost in human lives. Actually calculating that number could be a little tricky depending on how you do it, but I think Forbes did a good job a few years back of coming up with pretty reasonable numbers and explaining it to the layperson. Some of the analysis in that article was a little wrong-headed, but the numbers are about as good as you’ll find without diving really deep. And if you want to do that, the references at the bottom of that article aren’t a bad place to start.
The fact that solar panels on roofs kill more than 4,000 times as many people per unit energy than nuclear power (US-style) shouldn’t come as a surprise. Those panels have to get up there somehow, and installing them is every bit as dangerous as any other type of roofing work. And the panels don’t provide much power so we don’t get to spread that risk out. But that shouldn’t be taken as an insult to solar panels. If someone wants to put solar panels on their house we’re not going to tell them not to do that because they might fall any more than we would tell them not to clean their gutters or re-shingle their house. That’s their choice. If anything, I take it as a testament to just how very safe nuclear is. Most of what’s getting counted against nuclear there actually comes from the fact that uranium miners have higher rates of cancer than non-miners (still lower than coal miners, of course). We can’t prove that’s caused by their occupation – surely someone will claim that miners are more likely to smoke or something. But to be on the safe side, one might as well assume it is the fault of the mining. So those “extra” cancer deaths count against nuclear, and that’s the reason that number’s as high as it is.
Now, maybe you don’t agree with this assessment of the safety of nuclear power. I know and respect people who disagree strongly. We all have different ways of seeing the world, and I don’t think it would be fair for me to force you to support what I think is best. That’s part of the reason I take issue with the Plant Vogtle project. If someone wants to build a nuclear power plant they need to be responsible for finding voluntary ways of funding that (presumably mostly by borrowing money from investors). Instead they’re forcing you to pay for it in advance on your electric bill, even if you wholeheartedly believe it’s the wrong thing to do. Even if you somehow refuse to purchase electricity at all, your taxes help to fund this project that should, in principle, be able to eventually pay for itself through profits. And that’s not to speak of the tax incentives they received directly.
This sort of central planning approach has additional problems. What made anyone think they’d complete the project on-time and within budget, when they could continue making money without producing any results? If we keep electing the same people to the PSC (or their proteges), they can make you just keep paying forever. And the biggest argument from the commissioners why they keep this going? If the cancel the project, even after it has missed deadlines, we have to pay the company even more.
Now, I ask you, if you were calling the shots as a consumer, would you sign up for a deal like that? They say they’ll do something, but if they don’t deliver you keep paying, and if you ever change your mind you pay more? And even if they do deliver, this thing you helped pay for, you don’t own it.
With the qualifying process behind us, I thought it might be a good time to take stock of the latest developments. There are now five candidates seeking this office: two from the Republican wing of the establishment party; two from the Democratic wing of the establishment party; and one from the Libertarian Pary: yours truly.
If you want to see the official list of who these five people are, there’s actually two different searches you need to do at the Secretary of State website. The first will show you those who have only been qualified to run in a primary:
And there’s another search for those who are already qualified for the general election:
The reason for the two versions is because the various parties choose their nominees in different ways, and mine is already finished – I’m already nominated. For the record, I prefer our approach. Parties are not a part of our system. They are not democratic institutions belonging to the public. They’re private clubs. And my private club makes its internal decisions at a convention – effectively at a meeting of our private club that our members pay for. The Republican and Democratic parties instead use tax money to run elections where people not in any way associated with their party can be involved. Even I could vote in their nomination process, if I wanted to.
We can’t directly blame the Republicans and Democrats as a whole for this. It’s the law. They must have primaries, and we may not. It’s directly connected to the reason our legislative candidates must collect an abusive number of certified signatures in order to appear on your ballot, even though the majority of legislative elections will have ONLY ONE candidate. That’s also a law that applies to us and not them. The observant among us may point out these laws were written by Republicans and Democrats and perhaps not coincidentally supress their competition.
A number of media outlets have seized upon the opportunity from that candidate search to be the first one to let you know who will be on your ballots. Often they add nothing more than what was available on that site, but finding and publishing the information in a more readable fashion is a valuable service. But the fact that my name is in a different search from all the more establishment candidates, you may have guessed this, means I’m not usually mentioned. Journalists are generally incentivized to be the first one to press, not necessarily being the one with the deeper coverage.
One place I was mentioned, briefly, was the Insider Advantage blog. This came out before qualifying, so it was based on GA GF&CFC (formerly State Ethics Commission) filings, and so it does not include mention of the last-minute entrants. And the passing, largely dismissive mention of my campaign is certainly understandable if you were to put yourself in the author’s shoes. Let me explain.
If you are a political commentator, your expectations can only be driven by past results. If you look at the past PSC elections, it would seem that every single time, whichever candidate is the most establishment wins. Incumbents win. Career politicians win. You can look at who the utility companies that are supposed to be regulated by the Commission are throwing money at, and figure out who won those past elections.
And it’s true that these things do not apply to me. My party doesn’t get special, state-granted privileges. I have not been appointed by the governor even once, let alone twice. The utility companies have not donated one cent to my campaign, while an opponent reported taking hundreds of thousands of dollars from them before the end of January. And it’s certainly true that my campaign got off to a bit of a slow start (though I’d like to point out that Mr. Stoner didn’t have one at all at that time). You see, all of the people involved in my campaign are volunteers who, like me, work regular jobs and have families. We’re trying to do this the way politics was supposed to be done: real people acting out of a passion for a better way of doing things, not as an excuse to avoid contributing to the productive sector of society.
So one could be forgiven for thinking it’s a lost cause. “You can’t take on these juggernauts. Things are the way they are and always will be,” you might think. But then, why have an election at all? This way of thinking is completely wrong-headed.
This is an election. It’s not a contest or a race. There are no odds. There are no chances. No one is flipping a coin or rolling dice to decide who will be on the commission. An election is not a game. An election is nothing more or less than choice. It is a decision the voters will have to make. If you decide I will be on the Commission, then I will. If you decide on someone else, then they will. That’s all there is to it.
I’m running for the Public Service Commission so that voters will have a real choice on their ballot, and if elected, real choices thereafter. If you want to tell me about some “odds” that you imagine in your head, you can keep it to yourself.
I’m running for the Public Service Commission to empower Georgians to choose their own way to thrive whenever possible. The PSC exists to serve you, not the highest bidder.
So let’s not put the cart before the horse. This campaign is about the voter. You’re a voter. What do you want to see from the Public Service Commission? If our power, gas, and phone were provided by a free market, you would have choices to make. What would you be choosing?